General Characteristics of Birds

Here are given some general characteristics of birds. Birds are one of the unique groups of organisms present on the surface of the earth. Like mammals, they are also unique. What are the general characters of birds? A detailed but comprehensive look is given below.

  1. Usually, the four divisions of the body as head, neck, trunk, and tail.
  2. The neck is long, which helps in food searching, gathering, and balancing the body during flight.
  3. Two pairs of limbs, the anterior one is modified for flight, while the posterior limbs are modified for perching, swimming, and walking, usually four toes.
  4. Scales on legs and feathers on the body from the epidermis.
  5. No sweat gland.
  6. Oil or preen gland found at the base of the tail.
  7. Pinna of the ear is rudimentary.
  8. One occipital condyle. Air cavities in bones to lighten the body.
  9. No teeth are found.
  10. The mouth is in the form of a beak.
  11. The single bone in the middle ear.
  12. A sternum with good anatomy the keel may be present orabsent.
  13. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves with a well-developed nervous system.
  14. Birds have a heart of Four chambers heart, while red blood cells have a nucleus.
  15. They are endothermic.
  16. The presence of syrinx known as the voice box at the junction of trachea and bronchi.
  17. Semi-solid urine with uric acid as the main nitrogenous waste. The bladder is not present. Opens to outside by cloaca.
  18. Sexes are separate from each other, the females have left oviduct and ovary only, opening into the cloaca.
  19. Fertilization is internal with an egg that has amniote and yolk and a strong calcareous egg.
  20. Incubation is external with different periods in different birds.

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